عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
In this article we will compare four text-performance relation models including the literally model, the twotext
model, the type model and the musical model. We will also discuss viewers’ comprehension according to
each model. These four models represents fundamental different ways to conceive what will happen when a
performance makes use of a written text in performance and what happens when a performance makes use of
no text. The answers can be found in these models. Based on their perspective, theatre practitioners prefer one
of these models. Each model articulates five things: what aspect of the text is presented in the performance;
what audiences would refer to when identifying a performance; what criterion or standard, if any, ensure such
reference; whether the performance is considered a work of art by that model or not; and whether the written
text is considered a work of art, and if so how. Here, we will give a brief description of each model:
1. The Literary model is based on this idea that theatrical performances are illustrations or interpretations
of works of dramatic literature.
2. The two-text model is based on this idea that theatrical performances consist of “theatrical texts” to be
read and are something like translations of their corresponding literary texts.
3. The type model is based on the ontology of theatrical (and musical) performances, holding that a
performance is an instance of a kind (or “type”) that may have other (and other kinds of) instances, for
example, a text or score.
4. The mosaic model is based on the idea that texts are used in performance in much the same way people
use ingredients when they cook.
In discussing each model, advocates and practical examples will be mentioned. Stanislavski and Jacques
Copeau’s views for literally model; Gerald Rabkin, Arthur Miller and Tayroff`s views and also Grotowski,
Blav an Performance Group’s works for two-text model; epic theatre, Commedia dell’arte and Erwin
Piscator`s documentary theatre for literally model and Jean-Louis Barrault, Richard Forman and Robert
Wilson for musical model will be studied. According to this study, literally model has more validity
comparing to other models as comparison is possible due to written texts. Adaptation makes two-text model
challengeable and capable of being interpreted. Literally model’s most common use has been in academia
and criticism. Furthermore, knowing Type model helps to know the performances. These three models are
more or less related to the performance text. Musical model believes in art independence. It’s relying more
on theatrical details rather than language. To understand musical model-based performances, we need to study
communicational ways between performers and viewers.