عنوان مقاله [English]
This paper attempts to define The role of Bergsonian concepts in forming of Deleuze’s Philosophy of Cinema.
Deleuze is one of the most important contemporary philosopher who works on Cinema. He wrote two
major books in field of cinema which entitled them: Cinema 1, Movement-Image & Cinema 2, Time-Image.
Bergson is one of the most influential figures in philosophy of Deleuze, who plays a key role in Cinema
1 & 2. Deleuze uses some main concepts of Bergson like Duration, Movement, Memory… to construct
his philosophy of Cinema. Bergson Believes that Image is Movement of Matter. According to Connection
of Image and Movement, Deleuze Constructs Movement-Image which has a Movement Inherently. Based
on this concept, He named Cinema before world war II as Movement- Image or Indirect Image of Time.
In Cinema 1, Deleuze used Duration and Qualitive Movement to describe some definitions like Shot and
Montage in early years of cinema. Deleuze defines Montage in foundation of Bergson concept: something
changes from the beginning to the end of the film. It is Duration. Montage as Duration connects Shots which
present Images. It makes a whole entirely different from each shot. Whole is openness of Existence in which
time occurs. Deleuze finds some examples in history of cinema, such as: 1)American Montage school of
Griffith. 2)French Impressionist, 3)Revolutionary Russian School of Montage at 1920’s era and ultimately 4)
Expressionist School of pre war Germany. Coincidentally to war, belief of human to world changed. Cinema
wasn’t except from these changes. Deleuze called this Cinema Time-Image or Direct Image of time. Deleuze
used Bergsonian concept of Memory and Coexistence of Time to deconstruct formal meaning of time,
particularly Narration to explore purest mode of time. Time-Image is emergence of Duration. It gradually
appears in some school of film like Neorealism, French New Wave and totally Modern Cinema after World
War II. In This Image, Time isn’t linear and Homogeneous, but conversely Hetrogeneous. Deleuze used
Concept of Memory to create Recollection and Dream-Image. These Types of Time-Image makes Circuit
consisted of Subjective and Objective. There isn’t recognizable limits between Imaginary and Real in These
two Images. Recollection-Image uses Memory in Consciousness state like flashback in Cinema, while
Dream-Image employs it subconsciously. Another Bergsonian concept in cinema 2 is Coexistence of Time.
It is coincident of Past, Present and Future. This concept presents itself in different aspects: Mirror-Image
and Crystal-Image. In crystal-Image which is multiple dimensional Mirror-Image, sequence of time isn’t
determinable. Finally, Concepts of Bergson helps Deleuze to construct his prominent concept in his Cinematic
philosophy: Thought-Image. This paper also attempts to solve the question How Bergsonian concepts affect
Thought-Image. An Image which induces a Shock to Thought and promotes its value. You can recognize it in
all genres of cinema both Modern and Classic.