عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
This paper aims to study Claude Debussy’s works (1862-1918) in order to display his longing for the Oriental art, and to examine the new sounds and symbols he introduced to the Western music of the twentieth century. This French composer of the impressionist school, like his predecessors –such as Gauguin, the painter of the same school– made a lot of effort to find the beauties of the Oriental art, and to associate them with the music of his era. His approach opened new windows of musical connection for the later musicians, and brought about an outstanding evolution in the twentieth century art, by itself. The first spurs of propensity towards the Oriental art was ignited in Debussy by his several journeys and sojourns in Russia and encounter with the ideas of the artists there, especially those of Mussorgsky, also by viewing the East-Asian, e.g. Indonesian, music concerts when visiting the achievements at Exposition Universelle at the end of the nineteenth century. In order to evade the greatest music of his era, especially the German music, and to escape from its overhanging shadow, he felt the need for an evolution in the structure of the twentieth century music, and this transformation became possible via an exploration in the Oriental music. Having heard the music of the Gamelan ensemble of Java, Debussy fell in love with this music and began to compose pieces using the elements of the Oriental music. Using a historical and analytical outlook within the scope of Debussy’s works, this article analyzes his works from artistic and musical perspectives, and demonstrates that his works, like Estampes and Arabesque, composed in the early years of the twentieth century, all have an Oriental tendency and are inspired by the Oriental music, and that, with a fresh look at the major composition elements, such as rhythm, melody, harmony, and orchestration, Debussy presented a fresh structure of the Western classical music for the later composers. This article will also demonstrate that Debussy opened new pathways of acquaintance for later music enthusiasts and artists, leading the later composers to take firmer steps towards furthering the Western music. Among Debussy’s important achievements in approaching the Oriental music is the founding of schools and movements such as minimalism in music; admittedly, foundations of sciences, such as ethnomusicology, lie in this outlook of Debussy’s. One could observe, since then, that the western composers have been searching for fresh elements and new sounds via affinity and cooperation with the instrumentalists and musician of the Orient, and this, per se, has been a beginning for the spiritual encounter of the artists of the East and the West, a significant development and fusion made possible through Debussy’s efforts, and, quoting Pierre Boulez, Debussy was the turning point of the Western music. By examining Debussy’s works, this study aims to introduce him as the herald of this colossal movement. Lastly, one can claim that this approach set the foundation for the fusion and synthesis of the Eastern and Western music.