عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Documentary films are among the most important media in archaeological researches and education,
which unfortunately have not been under consideration. This article attempts to provide the definition
and classification of subspecies of archaeological documentary films, examine the history of such
films in Iran and all around the world and talk about its benefits and functions. This research has been
done based on library and documentary (films) resources. Unlike other genres of documentary films
such as ethnographical documentary films, archaeological films of Iran are not supportive of theoretical
issues. The results show that archaeological documentary film is a documentary film which by
relying on a scientific research deals with current methods, theoretical framework, scope and general
goals of archaeology, and other related sciences. According to their goals, we can divide archeological
documentary films into inspirational, training, interpretive, educational categories or according to
their audiences; we can divide them into professional or specialized films for professional audiences
and “educational films” for students and general audiences. Another way to study archeological films
is dividing them by their subjects. Making archaeological films began from the late silent film era.
Two silent documentary films on the ancient world made in 1931 and 1932-33 exist in the “Peabody”
film museum at Harvard University that show “Dorothy Garrod’s” excavations, English archaeologist,
in “Carmel” Mountain in Palestine. In 1955, Archaeological Institute of America by establishing
Committee for film and television took the first step to take initiative and responsibility in making
archaeological films under the direct supervision of archaeologists. The trend continues till today and
with the development of the cinema, these films also improve. For a detailed study of the history of
archeological films, it can generally be divided into five periods:
Period I: “1297 – 1330 SH”;
Period II: “1330 – 1357 SH”: the institutionalization of documentary cinema in Iran. At this time we
are faced with several processes. These processes based on their formation date and activities are:
- Department of Syracuse University;
- A group of students studied in west universities and institutions of filmmaking, after returning
to Iran made archeological films privately or with the support of Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts.
Among these students, Fereydoon Rahnama and Mostafa Farzaneh did great services for their next
- Golestan film organization (under management of Ebrahim Golestan); and
- National TV of Iran with Iranzamin Group.
Period III: “1357 – 1370 SH”: Revolution and War. The main charge of making documentary films
in this period and later periods is national television. One of the prominent filmmakers in this period
is Hamid Soheili.
Period IV: “1370 – 1380 SH”: Orod Zand, Mohsen Abdol Vahab and Muhammad Moghadam are
eminent filmmakers in this period.
Period V: “1380- 1390 SH”: in this period these groups are active:
- TV and documentation group of Channel Four;
- Private sector; and
- Center of Documentary and Experimental Films.
Orod Atapour, Ali Akbar Valadbeigi, Vahid Bagherzadeh and ... are prominent filmmakers of this