عنوان مقاله [English]
Science plays are a new genre in the field of dramatic plays which is rooted in the past. Marlow and Shakespeare are the first playwrights who tried to use scientific subjects in their plays. Before reaching modern time, some of playwrights had concerned on some subjects that were related to scientific subjects, especially chemistry and physics. After the explosion of atomic bomb, among scientific progress of human society, drama showed its interest in similar themes. Now, after atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima, playwrights attempted to protest against science and its danger for human. This opinion is given in the works of Berthold Brecht and Friedrich Durrenmatt -Galileo and Physicist. In the twentieth century, scientific approach to the development of technology is based on scientific theories and human achievements in the field of science and industry. Most of the scientific aspects of art can be found in the postmodern works. In recent years, literary foundations have showed their interests in scientific plays. Some plays are considered important by scientific institutions and art societies. For example, plays like Copenhagen by Michael Frayne, Wet by Margaret Hudson and Proof by David Auburn has awarded in New York literature Award and Pulitzer Award. Thinkers such as Jean-François Lyotard and Jean Baudrillard give some opinions about the postmodernism and art which explaine the features of these works. Based on these theories, these plays can be categorized as scientific plays which have properties of postmodernism literature. Postmodern plays are a kind of language game in form of intertextuality. Tom Stoppard, British contemporary playwright, is more well-known than other writers because of his effective ideas. Arcadia (1993) with choosing chaos theory as a framework for narrative structure, is the most important scientific play. The framework of this study is Lyotard’s Metanarratives theory and Baudrillard’s opinions about postmodern literature. It is proven scientific position among the works of postmodern- like some plays such as Arcadia. Stoppard, by postmodernism approach and scientific theories like thermodynamics, Newtonian physics, algorithm, mathematics and chaos theory, has succeeded in challenging science in dramatic structure. He could reconcile scientific theories with dramatic elements and merge plot and thematic schemata into scientific subjects in his play. Based on Lyotard’s theory about postmodernism, Stoppard has tried to deny Meta-narrations versus legitimate knowledge. Creating a world between fiction and reality, Stoppard makes Arcadia a story about never happened events that can never be found in history, however all subjects have special position in history. Baudrillard categorized these plays among science–fiction literature and argued about relation between this genre and public media. In Arcadia, particularly in ending scene, past and present times are mixing up together to make a fiction situation that can only be seen in science–fiction stories or movies. So, it can be concluded that scientific plays have postmodern aspects.