عنوان مقاله [English]
In order to study and survey ancient civilizations, the role of musical instruments of these civilizations must be reviewed based on existing monuments that contain musical inscriptions. To study common musical instruments in two neighboring civilizations can help to clarify parts of the musical culture of the research.
Ancient civilizations of Elam and Mesopotamia were connected and affected each other throughout the years in terms of culture, politics, and religion. Music has a special position in Mesopotamia so that there are lots of frescos showing people in power together with musicians on the palaces’ walls. The unique role of music in Mesopotamia is such that queens were buried with musicians and their instruments. On the other hand, only written texts about music are obtained from this civilization, the oldest of them dating back to the second millennium BC.Music and musicians are also present in various scenes in Elam. The discoveries so far show musical instruments and music in religious ceremonies, wars, and celebrations. Due to limited excavations conducted in Elam compared with Mesopotamia, one cannot certainty talk about the music and instruments used in the musical culture of Elam. Studying musical instruments in Elam and Mesopotamia can provide a better understanding about music in Elam. Harp is a very important melodic instrument in the ancient world and had a vital role and permanent presence in the music of Mesopotamia and Elam. This musical instrument can be seen continuously on ancient monuments from Elamite and Mesopotamia civilizations. The first signs of the presence of harp in vertical form are in the fourth millennium BC, in these two areas and the changing process of harps from simple to complex arcuate shape is traceable. Also, the process of change in the resonance box of the instrument and the decorations on the tailpiece bar that may have associations with the religious beliefs of Assyrians are other issues to investigate in the field. This instrument is played with a plectrum, and this can distinguish horizontal and vertical harps.The horizontal harps emerged in the early second millennium BC, without an indication of the presence of simple shapes. It has then-in the course of its life in the region- experienced structural changes. This musical instrument entered the Elamite musical culture in the first millennium BC.Horizontal harps used in Elamite musical culture underwent some structural changes. These types of harps have a significant difference with the Assyrian types. Horizontal harp was used for solo or Duet in the musical culture of Assyrians while in Elamite culture, they used it in Orchestra. Based on ancient artifacts from the civilizations of Mesopotamia and Elam, the instruments mentioned in two musical cultures will be analyzed and then compared.