عنوان مقاله [English]
The word ‘cyborg’ –a combination of ‘cybernetic’ and ‘organism’– refers to a hybrid creature whose biological features are profoundly tied to the most recent high technologies. The biological characteristics are not exclusively bound to the human body, but also encompass his mind and spirit. Gradually human mind, synthesized by technology, turns the man into a cyborg. As a theoretical concept, the cyborg was first introduced by Donna Haraway (1991a ) to outline human-technology relations and has been used to represent the more extreme technological interventions in the body from implants to plastic surgery. According to Haraway, “a cyborg is a cybernetic organism, a hybrid of machine and organism, a creature of social reality as well as a creature of fiction.” So in her approach to cyborg, the importance of science fiction is as much as the importance of social reality. Haraway believes science fiction has been transformed into social reality. Also, as she has explained in A Cyborg Manifesto (1985), “by the late twenties century, our time, […] we are all […] theorized and fabricated hybrids of machine and organism; in short, we are cyborgs”. Haraway believes that the cyborg is our ontology, but such an idea does not seem to be quite acceptable by the public or among popular culture and sounds rather exaggerated. People usually believe that new technologies –unless they overtly integrate with the human flesh– are just simple tools or gadgets provided to serve man and do not change his ontology. Most of them think there is a long gap between science fiction and social reality. On the other hand, cinema reflects the folklore as a mirror and simultaneously shapes the popular culture by its influences. This twofold function of cinema makes it a quite convenient field to study the cyborgs in human conditions. Also, nowadays fans of sci-fi movies are so much more than fans of science fiction stories. This article considers that the body and the mind are not separate from each other and the combination of any of them with technology, affects the other. But for better understanding, the cyborg, is divided into two parts: physical cyborg and mental cyborg. The physical cyborg in this study is the visible combination of flesh and machine. Parts of the living human body combines with technology, like an artificial organ. The mental cyborg is the integration of technology with the human mind that can change his understanding of space and time and the world around him. Mental cyborg can provide disembodied experiments and sometimes by creating artificial memory, changes the identity. This article first would consider the representation of cyborgs in cinema through three movies, ‘Blade Runner’, ‘Terminator’ and ‘Her’. Furthermore, investigating images that cinema presents of cyborg, it helps to understand what is meaning and shape of the cyborg in cultural public memory. Finally, this paper would investigate how cinema, as a technology, lets its staff and audience to become cyborgs.