عنوان مقاله [English]
Maqam Music is the latest form and of greatest conceptual importance among Iraqi Kurds. The notion comes and is defined in different versions across Middle East nations. It has, indeed, been represented in a variety of forms depending on historical eras and geographical contexts. In some periods, it has served as the most significant, most common and most fundamental musical concept across the Muslim world. As members of that Middle East community, Kurds have been no exception with regard to employing the concept of Maqam Music. In fact, among Iraqi Kurds, Maqam is considered as the most recent musical genre and concept. The present paper is in a way the first of its kind to have made a serious effort to dig in the roots of Maqam Music in Iraqi Kurdistan in accordance with the region’s cultural and musical criteria. The research, however, refrains from taking a historical approach, offering no room to the evolutionary process of Maqam formulating among the Kurds. Rather, the order of that music as it is known today has come under the spotlight. The main question the paper deals with is the modal structure and the theoretical roots of Maqams in Kurdish music. Thus, it seeks to elucidate the theoretical bases upon which this type of music has grown in Iraqi Kurdistan. To do so, the researcher has tried to initially touch upon a review of the related literature, followed by a field study combined with interviews involving local musicians and experts and later an analysis of the modals and a deconstruction of the Maqams, all aimed at offering a full portrayal of the concept of Maqam and its fundamental theories. The paper, therefore, is a qualitative research making use of the descriptive-analytical method. Data collection has been carried out based on observation, interviews and compiling details from a wide variety of textual sources not to mention visual references. The results gained by the study brought the researcher closer to the idea that the concept of Maqam in Kurdistan has two fundamental and key application: The primary and most common one is singing or instrumental performance with a free rhythm, while the second one is the modal form. The three fundamental elements of the vocal scheme, the role of the levels and the model melodies play a key part in creating the identity of Maqam works. Among Kurdistan musicians, the concept of mode refers more to a vocal scheme. As a matter of fact, the local musicians have little clear understanding regarding the elements which constitute the identity of the modes of Maqam (except for the vocal scheme). When it comes to modal structures, Maqams are divided into two major categories: those which incorporate more than one mode with a cyclic pattern and a certain specified order. In other words, as the final mode is performed, a particular Maqam in question loops back into the first mode. The second category, however, covers Maqams which consist of merely one single and unique mode.