عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
In this paper, Curse of the Starving Class, a play by Sam Shepard, has been studied and the identities of the characters have been analyzed based on Jacques Lacan’s theory. Sam Shepard, a contemporary American playwright, has had a close look at the characters and the question of their identity, mood of actions, and psychic problems have always been a griping subject for Shepard to deal with. For this purpose, Shepard has used dialogues as a firm ground to rely on and beside them, he has got help from the actions that the characters perform. On the other hand, Lacan has built his theories on the basis of language and he believes that the psychoanalysis of human beings lies in the analysis of the language they use.Therefore, the psychoanalysis of the dramatic character is analyzing the dialogues. In order to realize how the human psyche works, Lacan has formulated three Orders. These three orders (Imaginary, Symbolic, and Real) get effects from and in return, affect each other. These effects are the ways that the Identity is shaped. Lacan considers Identity as a non-coherent being which for its so-called unity, depends on different factors. In this project, the goal is to derive the characteristics of each of the Orders in the dramatic characters and to show how they work in order to form the Identity. Some of the characteristics looked for in the dialogues are: Lack, Desire, other/Other, Jouissance, drive, Identification, Aggression, Narcissism, the Mirror Stage, Trauma, and Hysteria. In Curse of the Starving Class, a continuous lack surrounds Identity and it can never be freed. The family members hold these lacks and as they have been tired of the sufferings, they want to change their lives. The characters are filled with the aggression that they have inherited from the previous generations and in return, they make the others suffer from this violence as well. Not being able to achieve to a real wholeness, they misjudge their beings as a unique and united one and reject any oppositions to this manner. In the effect of this aggression, they become obsessed with themselves and deal with their narcissism. The play shows the life of an American family that its members, based on the identities they have gained from the society and each other, in their actions and reactions, ruin the family union. They have been trying really hard to solve their intrinsic lacks and in effect, use their inherited violence as a weapon to satisfy their desires. They are not complete. Therefore, not being able to help the other members, they separate their lives. They see their proper happiness in different things and try to achieve that. However, when they come across the reality of life, they cannot accept it and suffer from Trauma. As they want to escape from themselves, some intend to escape from their country and develop another “dream land”; some identify with others, and one lays hysterically in the hands of death.