عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
A culture consists of behaviors, beliefs, values, and symbols of a group of people which are accepted by them in their life and that are passed along by communication and imitation from one generation to the next. But unfortunately, during the last hundred years, some structural characteristics of rituals have been weakened and even deleted.
For its historical ancientness and climatic vastness and also because of spread of numerous ethnic groups, Iran has extensive possibilities for cultural research. These researches can represent and introduce cultural features of this antique civilization. Therefore, the present research, in direction of these purposes, tries to unfold some of symbolic meanings in one of the ancient ceremonies in Iran named Chamar.
Aimed at representing and promoting the cultural aspects of the ancient civilization of Iran, this research is to find symbolic issues in an ancient ritual, Chamar, and its existence in the unconsciousness of this nation. This ritual is a mixed set of behaviors, gestures, taboos and customs that concentrate on mourning and all of the conventions of Chamar are connected to each other. On this basis, this research as a case study focuses on the Kord folk living in west of Iran, and by means of qualitative method and by use of some particular branches of that method including historical, descriptive, analytic method and structural analysis investigates the symbolic characteristics of ritual of chamar. The results of this research show that symbols and symbolism as most important way of expressing concepts have a crucial position at the ancient ritual of Chamar. These symbols have been fused in that ritual and particularly could be formulated in two kinds of symbols; symbolic tools and symbolic behaviors. Therefore, each tool and every behavior does not have the usual function of everyday life but forms symbolic things and symbolic actions that by use of meaningful symbols, have a shared meaning for all the members of folk, make great ideas and sublime effects that go beyond words.
A brief look at the ceremonies of Chamar and its materials shows that Symbols and Symbolization, as a principal way of explanation of meanings, have a unique situation in these ceremonies. It seems that the Symbolization of these ceremonies has a long history of creation and it exists in the mind and beliefs of this nation. These Symbols are mixed in the structure of the ceremonies and leads humans to deep thinking.
Therefore, in a brief glance, gathering the inconsolable men and women in ceremonies of Chamar in circle rows, and using musical and also Symbolic elements like horse, Alam, Kotal and using behavioral elements as wearing black and cutting hairs and other behaviors, builds the Symbolic expression that leads minds towards death and helps these men and women to overcome their everyday situations and conducts them towards a new meaningful life.