نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استادیار ادبیات نمایشی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس
2 کارشناس ارشد ادبیات نمایشی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس
عنوان مقاله [English]
Masks are taken in interpersonal communications. This article focuses on special masks that dramatic characters use intentionally as communicative tools to mispresent themselves. When someone appears unknown in front of others, he may give a definition of the situation intentionally or unwittingly. The character will be dressed in mask euphemistically to make the situation seem more acceptable than really is. This article checks the meanings of the characterizing in Iranian drama under the Goffman’s theory to examine how distinguish one character from the others. The question is ‘why and where are people wearing mask?’ Results give you an idea about Iranian drama costume of wearing in disguise, and explain how dress in men’s clothes or women’s costume is most used to conceal the truth. People conceal their gender when it is alien to their role. They attempt to wear in disguise to escape from death. Men’s dress gives women the opportunity to present themselves outside and feel more active, powerful and influential. Such action usually makes character eligible for being a hero. In contrast, wearing women’s dress causes pity, sympathy and compassion, hence surviving from difficult situations. The woman’s dress is allied with a sense of weakness. Women’s dress often makes a mockery of men and holds them up to ridicule. If characters find out that their countries are in danger and find their gender as an obstacle to protect their property, they will change their gender identity by wearing the masks. Gender is considered as a revolutionary changeable subject to deal with the desperate plight. In such a situation, the other’s gender can help them to survive. Using mask is also a tricky technique in modern style of writing to break the boundaries of time and space. Everyone tries to identify him/herself as historically fragmented Self. Androgenic intrigue expands the use of masks to express simultaneously male and female psyche. Androgenic intrigue in drama creates scary predictors which are often symbolic and have marginal roles. In Iranian dramatic literature there is no main role for these creatures, but in Western literature we see Orlando (both man and woman) who is omniscient and is aware of everything. Instead, strange creatures are living in Iranian dramatic literature ranging from Hermaphrodites (both man and woman, neither man nor woman), super women and super men. They have marginal and transient roles and usually appear symbolically on stage to predict bad occurrences. Human spirit is composed of both male and female sexuality. The composition of gender identity is the goal of social transformation which is called bourgeois revolution. These scary creatures which their gender is not specified sometimes can be found in the form of a baby. The baby is usually a symbol of the land and history. He/she is an old baby which raises fear and nobody accepts his/her responsibility.