عنوان مقاله [English]
Historical Film is one the most prominent, continuous & oldest genre in film history. As a matter of fact, it has been the mere cause for so many discussions & Controversies between historians and filmmakers. Making historical films, specifically in terms of quantity of researches about this genre, has increased since 1980s. This article, after introducing all sub–genres of historical films (fiction historical films, topical films, metahistorical films and documentary historical films, compilation documentary, recreation documentaries, docudramas and docufictions), would discuss & criticize the subject from the viewpoint of different historians, researchers & filmmakers by documental & library research methods. Among these sub-genes or types of historical films, fiction films and, in certain cases, some documentary films about historical periods and figures, also the methods of representation historical facts by filmmakers, are in the center of discussions and arguments between historians and film producers. Then, the article continues the subject as followings:
- The role and authenticity of film as a document in historical and scientific researches
- Distinction between historiography and historical filmmaking
- Comparison between activities of a historian and a historical filmmaker in relation to history
- Historical film as visual historiography
- The methods of filmic historiography (documentary and fiction)
Today, the relation between history and film (film as a medium, as an art, as a document and as a means in training and scientific researches) has many different dimensions and characteristics: for writing or representing its own history as an audio-visual medium or as an art (film historiography), its effects on history (socially, economically, politically), the functions of film productions as historical sources or documents for history studies and historical researches (film as testimony and discourse for history) and finally, “film as a visionary truth” for pure scientific/experimental field researches. In modern historiography some historians and history scholars have begun a new method for “writing” or representing history from1990s. This new method is “visual historiography” or “historiophoty”: the representation of history and our thoughts about it in visual images and filmic discourse -this new method is suggested by Hayden White (famous American historian- b.1928, the author of “metahistory”) in an essay, historiography and historiophoty, in American Historical Review in 1988. The approaches of visual historiography (historiophoty) comes from this idea or philosophy of some contemporary historians about cinema: the films -including historical films- have affected us (historians) for many years, and we, in our turn, have affected the knowledge of history only by “words”. Now, we should represent the history by visual images and filmic discourse. Finally, the article comes to these conclusions: Developing the relationship between cinema and historiography -during formation of historical film genre- has been depended on below parameters:
- Depicting historical events, periods and figures
- Change in filmmakers’ viewpoints on history and historians’ viewpoints on film.
- Emergence of new schools and methods in historiography (including visual/filmic method of historiography).