عنوان مقاله [English]
New Historicism is a new approach in literary and cultural studies that mainly focuses on the historical background of a text as an inseparable part of it. New Historicists assume that language can form its culture and is organized by it. The concept of language in new historicism is more than word-of-mouth. According to their ideas, language includes discourse, writing, literature, social reaction and any type of social relations. These relations provide a person or a group with the possibility to impose his view or disposition upon the others. Therefore, the text becomes a battlefield where the conflicting thoughts of the author, society, customs, institutions and social acts interact and finally the author and the reader come to an agreement by their perception of them. New historicists believe that there is no difference between a literary text and a non-literary one, because any text contains some discourses which have a pivotal role in making a culture. From this perspective, the author’s situation, whether cultural or social, creates a work of art; thus, awareness of dominant ideology and discourse can help create a scope for advancing. New historicists consider literature as a place where there is a conflict between non-dominant sub-discourses and dominate discourse. This approach views literary text as a place for the interaction between different discourses (and) demonstration of power relations. Many thinkers have contributed to this approach and Foucault was one of them. In his opinion history was a complicated relationship between different kinds of discourse. Discourse and power are inseparable and power is exerted through language. This approach attempts to portray the interaction between different discourses in a literary text and to show how discourses and texts are influenced by each other. Bahman Forsi has indicated his ideology by social discourses in his play Aramsayeshgah. The theme of the play is rooted in the society where the playwright lived. It shows cultural and social aspects of that ere. Power is presented throughout the whole society. On the surface, the theme of the play seems an ordinary one. According to New historicism social, political and cultural aspects of time are included in the texts created in that time. Therefore, the text or work of art is regarded as a social product. For example, characters in Forsi’s play are wasted intellectuals who cope with their frustration and disillusionment. This paper attempts to show that Aramsayeshgah is a place where different discourses interact. It also tries to find the source of social rules and regulations, the dominant discourse in the text, and show that they are a reflection of social situations and norms in the historical time the author tried to depict.