چگونگی تأثیر مطالعات جانبی بر درک محتوای پارتیتور، تفسیر و بازخلق در اجرای ارکستر (با تمرکز بر « باله‌ی پتروشکا» اثر ایگور استراوینسکی)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

10.30480/dam.2021.1056

چکیده

تفسیر در اجرای موسیقی موضوعی بسیار پیچیده و تحت‌تأثیر عوامل بسیار است. در اجرای یک اثر موسیقایی توسط مجری هم مکتوبات پارتیتور و هم نانوشته‌های آن به صدا درمی‌آیند. پس مجری اثر نه‌تنها با دقت به جزییات نوشته‌شده توسط آهنگ‌ساز می‌پردازد، بلکه برای ارایه‌ی اجرایی خوب به کشف نکات نانوشته بسیاری در اثر نیز نیازمند است که معمولاً این نانوشته‌ها ازنظر کمی در مقایسه با مکتوبات بسیار بیشتر هستند. سؤال کلیدی این است که اجراکننده چگونه می‌تواند درراستای کشف لایه‌هایی عمقی‌تر و درک پارتیتور بر مسیری که هنوز تجربه نکرده، پرتو افکند؟ چطور از نت‌های نوشته‌شده در پارتیتور به بخش نانوشته آن نزدیک شود؟ دراین‌راستا به چه اطلاعات تکمیلی نیاز است و چگونه می‌توان آن را به‌دست آورد؟ هدف این مقاله نه آنالیز اثر بلکه پاسخ به سؤالات فوق با تمرکز بر « باله‌ی پتروشکا»» اثر ایگور استراوینسکی است. بدین‌منظور مکتوبات مختلف در مورد آهنگ‌ساز و آثار او در کنار پارتیتور و نوشته‌های دیگر از او موردبررسی قرار گرفته‌اند. این مقاله نشان می‌دهد که چگونه می‌توان در کنار مطالعه پارتیتور با استفاده از اطلاعات جانبی به درک بهتری از محتوای اثر که ضرورت انکارناپذیری در رسیدن به اجرایی مطلوب است، دست یافت.
 
[i] Score

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Lecturer, Department of performing art and music, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

نویسنده [English]

  • Sohrab Kashef
چکیده [English]

Interpretation is a very complicated theme in musical performance and is influenced by many factors. The notes on the paper indicate sounds in the composer's mind, but they are not still real sounds. In other words, the score does not sound by itself! Converting a composer's score to musical sounds includes a complex process full of dark points which should be discovered during the score studying and before rehearsals begins. In a musical performance, not only the written notes but also the not written parts between the notes are played by the musicians. Therefore, a musician must learn all the score details and be well prepared for all of them and also have a clear image of the sound that he wants. Of course, to achieve the desired interpretation in a performance, it is necessary to learn the orchestral score exactly, but definitely it is not enough. For this purpose, the performer needs to pay close attention to all of the details written by the composer, also to be able to discover the unwritten elements in the work to reach a clear musical imagination to provide a fine interpretation in performance. These articles, by mentioning some aspects of the score studying and citing examples shows how the additional information relates to the conductor’s musical ideas and helps them understand and prepare the piece.
 
The question is how can a performer discover a way to discover deeper layers between the notes in a score and understand the piece on a deeper level? How to approach the unwritten part between written notes in the orchestral full score? Which further information could be practical and how can they be obtained? The purpose of this article is not to analyze the piece, but to specifically answer the prior questions by focusing on Igor Stravinsky's Ballet “Petrouchka.”To this end, the full score of Petrouchka, other pieces, and writings by the composer, alongside various researches about the composer and his works have been studied. The author has employed his experiences in conducting and score studying to recognize the relationship between the supplemental information and how score details can be understood. This article seeks to discover ways to approach the content of the score by citing examples from the composer's various works and examining other information about his musical ideas. It should be noted that as no two works are alike, how the musicians approach the content of the work is not quite the same.
Finally, this article will indicate how a more thorough understanding of the content of an undeniably necessary work for achieving the desired performance, can be reached by employing additional information.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Interpretation
  • Orchestral Full score
  • Igor Stravinsky
  • Petrouchka