عنوان مقاله [English]
In this paper, the main primary goal is to study the spatiotemporality and the stratigraphy of the Karbala space in the movies "The Fateful Day", "Karbala" and "Never" based on the principles of Geocriticism. One of the concerns of postmodern man is space and place. We demand a scientific approach to study space. Geocriticism represent an interdisciplinary approach to study the geographic space in literature and art and it Surveys the relations between humans, literature, and art spaces. Bertrand Westphal published his paper under the title "geographic approach to the Literary Text" ("Pour une approache géocritique des textes") for the first time in 2000 and his book under the title "La Géocritique; Réel, fiction, espace" was published in 2007. These are considered the manifesto of geocritisime. Geocriticism pays attention to the multifocalisation of a single space due to the points of view between endogenous, exogenous and allogenous. Transgressive is one of the concepts that lead to the several interpretations of the spatial layers and it has been achieved by multifocalisation. So, by taking a geocritical perspective it has designated a plural point of view, located at the crossroad of distinct representations. Also, the audience comes closer to the essential identity of the referenced space. In this paper, the movies (emphasizing the elements of space and place) have been selected from among movies that deal with the subject of Karbala. Additionally, considering the various points of view of the directors, their convergences and differences will be unfolded. In addition, while discovering the space-time layers of Karbala; it pays attention to the thoughts governing the Karbala space descriptor.
The researchers have looked to reading out if the movies have drawn out the space-time layers forming the city? Moreover, what pictures of a single space have been represented? What is the relationship between the reality of space and its representation? In this paper, employing the descriptive-analytical method and with library sources and documentary information gathering techniques, the samples will be studied. The results indicate that the interest of the director with an endogenous point of view at Karbala space has been led to drawing space-time layers of Karbala Space, depicting these layers as an identity-making layers and drawning out them from the depths of forgetfulness. Meanwhile studying the favorite movies, because of different points of view, some of the space-time layers were revealed that form Karbala city. Also, it was discovered that there is a significant relationship between the sense of place and cultural and social identity. Therefore, the Muslim director has considered the Shrine of Imam Hussein (PBUH) as one of the layers of the city and an identity-making place. While the space-time layers are not important for the exogenous point of view of the non-Muslim director and the space is considered an"other" space for him. Today, Karbala has received a lot of attention from both Muslims (both Shiites and Sunnis) and non-Muslims. Therefore, knowing Karbala space and its capacities is crucially important, and it has not been paid attention to so far.