در این مقاله اجرای «آکروپولیس » به کارگردانی یرژی گرتوفسکی 1 از منظر فلسفی پساساختگرای ژان ژاک دریدا 2، مورد بررسی قرار می گیرد. آکروپولیس در اردوگاه آشویتس 3 اجرا شده است. اشخاص نمایش با وسایل صحنه که مشتی آهن زنگار گرفته است، کوره ی آد م سوزی را بنا میکنند. تضادها و تقابل ها در تکنیک اجرایی نمایش آکروپولیس، نظام دلالتی پیچیده ای را می سازد که معنا و دریافت را برای تماشاگر به تعویق می اندازد. این نظام دلالتی در اجرای آکروپولیس بر اساس نظریه های فلسفی دریدا واسازی می گردد. آکروپولیس به لحاظ فرم اجرایی، با توجه به دیدگاه های دریدا و بارت مورد بررسی قرار می گیرد. از آنجایی که مقوله ی آستانه هم در دیدگاه دریدا و بارت و هم در اجرای آکروپولیس اهمیت به سزایی دارد، در این پژوهش وضعیت اشخاص نمایش در آستانه ی رفتن به کوره ی آدم سوزی در آکروپولیس بررسی می شود. پژوهش حاضر توصیفی تحلیلی-کیفی و بر اساس تئوری واسازی دریداست
Abstract This research is going to study Akropolis performance by post structuralism perspective. Akropolis was directed by Jerzey Grotowski, famous polish director who is indubitably one of the most prominent theatre Directors and theorists in the second half of the 20th century. He has an important role in progression of experimental theatre and actor training techniques over the past decades. Akropolis was adapted from the Stanisław Wyspiański’s dramatic epic poem which was written between 1903 and 1904. The Main Play [Wyspiański’s poetic drama] was set on the night of Easter Saturday when Sculptures and paintings in the Wawel cathedral in Kraków were coming to life. The main theme of Akropolis is resurrection, considered not only as salvation from death, inertia and forgetting, but also as a task given to each human being. Grotowski performed Akropolis in Auschwitz. He changed the location of events to Auschwitz in order to find out how far Classic idea of human magnanimity could resist in new Era of Post-war tensions and decadence. The characters of performance constructed crematorium ovens from customs and iron rust which was located within the Auschwitz. Performers in this performance are both slaves in Auschwitz and famous historical characters such as Jacob, Helen, and Paris. Although this performance shows the ancient mythical story, the meaning of them is unclear. For instance, Christ is a doll and Paris fall in love with Helen as far as Helen is man. As all the performers are signs, they make an implementation system. In this system there is no final object so performance shows the absent of life with showing the existence of life. Characters in Acropolis are signs, which are moving in the space between two worlds, war camp and mythology world, since there is no center and signified, imply to each other. They have the spur of each other and Take part in the free play of signs and signify to each other. This implication system in the Akropolis performance was deconstructed based on Derrida philosophical theories. Conflicts and confrontations in the performing technique of Akropolis make a complex implication system, which postpone meaning and inception for the audience. Since the theater is based on the principle of delayed and differentiation, the meaning is always delayed. This qualitative study is descriptive and analytical. It surveys the performance theme by Derrida’s structuralism perspective. Some of the main aims of this research are to study Derrida’s deconstruction theory, survey the implementation of meaning and facts in Akropolis performance, to discover how implication deconstructed in Akropolis. Since the ‘threshold’ is one of the most important Components of Derrida’s theories, Comparing the relationship between characters which were in threshold of crematorium ovens in Akropolis and Jacob threshold position in “battle between Jacob and angel” (one of the mythical story in performance) is the other significant aim of this article. In crossing the threshold, the only important thing is the energy of moving and in the view of Derrida this energy is meaning.
کلیدواژه ها [English]
Akropolis performance, threshold, Deconstruction, Post Structuralism